"This study is both ground-breaking and standard-setting as it introduces empirical methods in the study of international arbitration."
Empirical means verifiable by observation or experience rather than theory or pure logic. In other words, a hands-on approach rather than an academic one. You might think it comes from 'empire' but it has a different root. Empirical is derived from the Greek empeiria 'experience', whereas empire comes from the Latin imperare 'to command'.
Excessive bureaucracy is described as RED TAPE because this is what used to bind government documents together